Attributes & Methods

Common Attributes

All measurement results have a few common properties.

Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The entire measurement result, as-is from json.loads()
created datetime The time at which this result was initiated
created_timestamp int A Unix timestamp value for the created attribute
measurement_id int  
probe_id int  
firmware int The probe firmware release
origin str The IP address of the probe
seconds_since_sync int The number of seconds since the probe last syncronised its clock
is_malformed bool Whether the result (or related portion thereof) is unparseable
is_error bool Whether or not there were errors in parsing/handling this result
error_message str If the result is an error, the message string is in here

Ping

The simplest measurement type, ping measurement results contain all of the properties common to all measurements as well as the following:

Property Type Explanation
af int The address family. It’s always either a 4 or a 6.
duplicates int The number duplicates found
rtt_average float  
rtt_median float  
rtt_min float  
rtt_max float  
packets_sent int  
packets_received int  
packet_size int  
destination_name str The string initially given as the target. It can be an IP address or a domain name
destination_address str An IP address represented as a string
step int The number of seconds between ping requests (interval)
packets list A list of ping Packet objects

Packet

Each ping request sends n packets, where n is a value specified at measurement creation time. We represent these packets as Packet objects.

Property Type Explanation
rtt float  
dup bool Set to True if this packet is a duplicate
ttl int  
source_address str An IP address represented as a string

Traceroute

Probably the largest result type, traceroute measurement results contain all of the properties common to all measurements as well as the following:

Property Type Explanation
af int The address family. It’s always either a 4 or a 6.
destination_name str The string initially given as the target. It can be an IP address or a domain name
destination_address str An IP address represented as a string
source_address str An IP address represented as a string
end_time datetime The time at which the traceroute finished
end_time_timestamp int A Unix timestamp for the end_time attribute
paris_id int  
size int The packet size
protocol str One of ICMP, TCP, UDP
hops list A list of Hop objects. If the parse_all_hops parameter is False, this will only contain the last hop.
total_hops int The total number of hops
ip_path list A list of dicts containing the IPs at each hop. This is just for convenience as all of these values are accessible via the Hop and Packet objects.
last_median_rtt float The median value of all RTTs from the last successful hop
destination_ip_responded bool Set to True if the last hop was a response from the destination IP
last_hop_responded bool Set to True if the last hop was a response at all
is_success bool Set to True if the traceroute finished successfully
last_hop_errors list A list of last hop’s errors

It is also possible to supply the following parameter to control parsing of Traceroute results:

Parameter Type Default Explanation
parse_all_hops bool True Set to False to stop parsing Hop objects after the last_* properties (see above) have been set. This will cause hops to only contain the last Hop.

Hop

Each hop in the traceroute is available as a Hop object.

Property Type Explanation
index int The hop number, starting with 1
packets list A list of tracroute Packet objects
median_rtt float The median value of all RTTs of the hop

Packet

Property Type Explanation
origin str The IP address of where the packet is coming from
rtt float  
size int  
ttl int  
arrived_late_by int If the packet arrived late, this number represents “how many hops ago” this packet was sent
internal_ttl int The time-to-live for the packet that triggered the error ICMP. The default is 1
destination_option_size int The size of the IPv6 destination option header
hop_by_hop_option_size int The size of the IPv6 hop-by-hop option header
icmp_header IcmpHeader See IcmpHeader below

IcmpHeader

This class is slightly different than other parts of Sagan as it in objects we find a complex generic list containing generic dictionaries pulled directly from the JSON blob. The decision not to further parse this bob into separate Python models was made based on the assumption that much of this section is very edge-case and the contents are present sporadically.

If however there is a demand for further development of this portion of the result, we can expand it. Until then though, IcmpHeader is a very simple class, the majority of data living in objects.

For further information about this portion of a traceroute result, you should consult our data structure documentation

Property Type Explanation
version int RFC4884 version
rfc4884 bool True if length indication is present, False otherwise
objects list As mentioned above a complete dump of whatever is in the obj property

DNS

The most complicated result type, dns measurement results contain all of the properties common to all measurements as well as the following:

Property Type Explanation
responses list A list of DNS Response objects (see below)

Response

Most DNS measurement results consist of a single response, but in some cases, there may be more than one. Regardless, every Response instance has the following properties:

Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The fragment of the initial JSON that pertains to this response
af int The address family. It’s always either a 4 or a 6.
destination_address str An IP address represented as a string
source_address str An IP address represented as a string
protocol str One of TCP, UDP
abuf Message See Message below
qbuf Message See Message below
response_time float Time, in milliseconds until the response was received
response_id int The sequence number of this result within a group of results, available if the resolution was done by the probe’s local resolver

Message

Responses can contain either an abuf or a qbuf which are both Message objects. If you want the string representation, simply cast the object as a string with str().

Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The fragment of the initial JSON that pertains to this response
header Header See Header below
edns0 Edns0 See EDNS0 below, if any
questions list A list of Question objects
answers list A list of Answer objects, if any
authorities list A list of Answer objects, if any
additionals list A list of Answer objects, if any

A note on pre-calculated values

By default, when you pass a result into Sagan, it will attempt to parse the abuf and qbuf strings (if any) into Message objects. However, some of the values in that abuf may have already been pre-calculated and stored alongside the other attributes in the result. Many Header values for example, can be found in the raw result (outside of the abuf string), so parsing the abuf for these values is redundant and potentially unnecessary if these values are all you need.

For this case, Sagan supports passing parse_buf=False to the DnsResult class. If you opt for this method, the abuf will not be parsed, and any values not immediately available in the result will return None. For example:

from ripe.atlas.sagan import DnsResult
my_result = DnsResult(
    '<some result data including name, type, and rdata, but not ttl or class>',
    parse_buf=False
)
result.responses[0].abuf.answers[0].name       # "version.bind"
result.responses[0].abuf.answers[0].klass      # None
result.responses[0].abuf.answers[0].rd_length  # None
result.responses[0].abuf.answers[0].type       # "TXT"
result.responses[0].abuf.answers[0].ttl        # None
result.responses[0].abuf.answers[0].data       # "Some RDATA value"

Note also that Result.get() accepts parse_buf= as well:

from ripe.atlas.sagan import Result
my_result = Result.get(
    '<some result data including name, type, and rdata, but not ttl or class>',
    parse_buf=False
)
result.responses[0].abuf.answers[0].name  # "version.bind"
...

Question

The question section of the response.

NOTE: In keeping with Python conventions, we use the propertyname klass here instead of the more intuitive (and illegal in Python) class. It may be confusing for non-Python programmers, but unfortunately it’s a limitation of the language.
Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The portion of the parsed abuf that represents this section
klass str The CLASS value, spelt this way to conform to Python norms
type str  
name str  

Answer

The answer section of the response.

NOTE: In keeping with Python conventions, we use the propertyname klass here instead of the more intuitive (and illegal in Python) class. It may be confusing for non-Python programmers, but unfortunately it’s a limitation of the language.
Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The portion of the parsed abuf that represents this section
klass str The CLASS value, spelt this way to conform to Python norms
type str  
name str  
ttl int  
address str An IP address
rd_length int  

There is a different sub-class of Answer for every DNS answer type. These are all briefly outlined below.

AAnswer & AAAAAnswer

Both of these classes have only one additional property to their parent Answer class: address.

Property Type Explanation
answer str The address response
NsAnswer & CnameAnswer

Both of these subclasses only have one additional property: target.

Property Type Explanation
target str The address of the target
MxAnswer
Property Type Explanation
preference int The preference number
mail_exchanger str The exchanger name
SoaAnswer

There are a lot of additional properties for SOA answers, as well as a few aliases for people who like human-readable names.

Property Type Explanation
mname str The master server name
rname str The maintainer name
serial int  
refresh int  
retry int  
expire int  
minimum int The negative TTL
master_server_name str An alias for mname
maintainer_name str An alias for rname
negative_ttl str An alias for minimum
nxdomain str An alias for minimum
DsAnswer
Property Type
tag int
algorithm int
digest_type int
delegation_key str
DnskeyAnswer
Property Type
flags int
algorithm int
protocol int
key str
TxtAnswer

A class for DNS TXT responses, TxtAnswer has all of the properties of an Answer class, but with two additional properties:

Property Type Explanation
data list The response text, represented as a list of strings, though in most cases, the list has only one element.
data_string str The string representation of data, joining all elements of the list with a space.
RRSigAnswer
Property Type
type_covered str
algorithm int
labels int
original_ttl int
signature_expiration int
signature_inception int
key_tag int
signer_name str
signature str

Note that RRsigAnswer``s have a special string representation, where the values of ``type_covered, algorithm, labels, original_ttl, signature_expiration, signature_inception, key_tag, signer_name`, and ``signature are all concatenated with spaces.

NsecAnswer
Property Type
next_domain_name str
types list
Nsec3Answer
Property Type
hash_algorithm int
flags int
iterations int
salt str
hash str
types list
Nsec3ParamAnswer
Property Type
algorithm int
flags int
iterations int
salt str
PtrAnswer
Property Type
target str
SrvAnswer
Property Type
priority int
weight int
port int
target str
SshfpAnswer
Property Type
algorithm int
digest_type int
fingerprint str
TlsaAnswer
Property Type
certificate_usage int
selector int
matching_type int
certificate_associated_data str
HinfoAnswer
Property Type
cpu str
os str

EDNS0

The optional EDNS0 section of the response.

Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The portion of the parsed abuf that represents this section
extended_return_code int  
name str  
type str  
udp_size int  
version int  
z int  
options list A list of Option objects
Option
Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The portion of the EDNS0 section that represents this option
nsid str  
code int  
length int  
name str  

SSL Certificate

SSL certificate measurement results contain all of the properties common to all measurements as well as the following:

Property Type Explanation
af int The address family. It’s always either a 4 or a 6.
destination_name str The string initially given as the target. It can be an IP address or a domain name
destination_address str An IP address
source_address str An IP address
port int The port numer
method str This should always be “SSL”
version str  
response_time float Time, in milliseconds until the response was received
time_to_connect float Time, in milliseconds until the connection was established
certificates list A list of Certificate objects
is_signed bool Set to True if the certificate is self-signed
checksum_chain str A list of all checksums for all certificates in this result, joined with the arbitrary string ::. This can come in handy when you’re trying to compare checksums of multiple results.

Certificate

Each SSL certificate measurement result can contain multiple Certificate objects.

Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The fragment of the initial JSON that pertains to this response
subject_cn str The subject’s common name
subject_o str The subject’s organisation
subject_c str The subject’s country
issuer_cn str The issuer’s common name
issuer_o str The issuer’s organisation
issuer_c str The issuer’s country
valid_from datetime  
valid_until datetime  
checksum_md5 str The md5 checksum
checksum_sha1 str The sha1 checksum
checksum_sha256 str The sha256 checksum
has_expired bool Set to True if the certificate is no longer valid

HTTP

HTTP measurement results contain all of the properties common to all measurements as well as the following:

Property Type Explanation
uri str  
method str The HTTP method
responses list A list of Response objects

Response

Each HTTP measurement result can contain multiple Response objects.

Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The portion of the JSON that pertains to this response
af int The address family. It’s always either a 4 or a 6.
body_size int The total number of bytes in the body
head_size int The total number of bytes in the head
destination_address str An IP address
source_address str An IP address
code int The HTTP response code
response_time float Time, in milliseconds until the response was received
version str The HTTP version

NTP

NTP measurement results contain all of the properties common to all measurements as well as the following:

Property Type Explanation
leap_second_indicator str Leap second indicator
poll int Poll interval
precision float  
protocol str UDP
reference_id str Reference id returned by server
reference_time float The NTP time the server last contacted the reference time source
root_delay float Round trip time from the server to the reference time source
root_dispersion float Accuracy of server’s clock
stratum int How far in hops is server from reference time source
version int The NTP version
mode str Ntp communication mode. Usually server
rtt_median float The median value of packets’ rtt
offset_median float The median value of the packets’ offset
packets list A list of ntp Response objects

Response

Each HTTP measurement result can contain multiple Response objects.

Property Type Explanation
raw_data dict The portion of the JSON that pertains to this response
offset float The NTP offset
rtt float The response time
final_timestamp float A full-precision Unix timestamp for when the NTP client received the response
origin_timestamp float A full-precision Unix timestamp for when the NTP client send packet to the server
received_timestamp float A full-precision Unix timestamp for when the NTP server received the request
transmitted_timestamp float A full-precision Unix timestamp for when the NTP server transmitted the response
final_time datetime A Python datetime object with limited precision[1] based on final_timestamp
origin_time datetime A Python datetime object with limited precision[1] based on origin_timestamp
received_time datetime A Python datetime object with limited precision[1] based on received_timestamp
transmitted_time datetime A Python datetime object with limited precision[1] based on transmitted_timestamp
[1]Python datetime objects are limited to 6 decimal places of precision.